Most elements are metals. Including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, actinides, lanthanides, and transition metals. Metals and nonmetals are separated by a zigzag line that traverses carbon, phosphorus, selenium, iodine, and radon.
These elements along with those to their right are nonmetals. To the left of the line, elements with characteristics between those of metals and nonmetals are metalloids or semimetals.
Except for hydrogen, nonmetals are on the right side of the periodic table. Non-metallic elements include hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur, halogens, and noble gases.
Differences between metals and nonmetals
Metal is a solid that is usually hard, shiny, and opaque. While a non-metal is a solid or gaseous substance that does not have any metallic properties.
Matter is a material that has mass and takes up space. It can be found in three different forms an element, a compound, and a mixture. Elements are the purest form of matter. They have three groups.
These groups are metals, metalloids, and non-metals. These three elements are split into two groups based on their physical and chemical properties.
Non-metals have between four and eight electrons in their outer shell. While metals only have one to three. Metals tend to lose their valence electrons. Non-metals can share or gain valence electrons.
Non-metals make acidic oxides instead of basic oxides like metals do. While metals are good at reducing, non-metals are good at oxidizing.
DIFFERENCES IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
|They normally do not combine with hydrogen. Few reactive metals react with hydrogen to form ionic metal hydrides.||Non-metals react with hydrogen to form stable, covalent hydrides.|
|Metals form ionic chlorides with chlorine.||They form covalent chlorides with chlorine,|
|They displace hydrogen from dilute acids.||Non-metals do not react with dilute acids|
|Metals displace hydrogen from water (or steam).||They do not react with water (or steam)|
|They form basic oxides.||Non-metals form acidic oxides or neutral oxides|
Differences in physical properties
|Metals have high densities they||They have low densities|
|They are electropositive||Nonmetals are electronegative|
|Metals are shiny||These are non-lustrous except for iodine|
|These are malleable and ductile||Nonmetals are brittle and can break down into pieces|
|Metals are very hard except for sodium||These are soft except for diamond|
|These are solids at room temperature except mercury||Nonmetals exist in all three states|
Key points: Difference Between Metals and Nonmetals
- Metals are usually solids that are hard and look metallic. They conduct electricity and heat well and have high melting and boiling points.
- Elements that are non-metals tend to be softer and more colorful. It could be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. They melt and boil at lower temperatures than most metals.
- Non-metals have between four and eight electrons in their outer shell. While metals have between one and three.
- Metals can be beaten into thin sheets because they are malleable. But, elements that are non-metals are very weak.
- The density of metals is high to moderate, while the density of non-metals is low to moderate.
- Non-metals are transparent and metals are opaque.
- At room temperature, metals are solid, and non-metals can be either solid or liquid.
- Valence electrons tend to be lost by metals, but they can be shared or gained by non-metals.
List of Metals
List of nonmetals
It’s hard to tell the difference between metals and nonmetals. Semimetals or metalloids are elements that have traits of metals and nonmetals.
On the periodic table, a stair-step line roughly separates metals from nonmetals but chemists know that it is subjective to call one element a “metal” and the one next to it a “metalloid.” Most metals can act like nonmetals under certain circumstances and vice versa.
Hydrogen is an example of an element that sometimes acts like a nonmetal and sometimes like a metal. Hydrogen is gas in most situations. So, it acts like something that is nonmetal but when put under a lot of pressure, it turns into solid metal.
Hydrogen is often the +1 cation even when it is a gas (a metallic property). Still, it sometimes makes the -1 anion (a nonmetal property).